Phrase elements are used to add structural information to the content.

In respective order, the meanings of the phrasing elements are:

  • EM => emphases text;
  • STRONG => strongly emphases text;
  • CITE => citation or a reference to other sources;
  • DFN => defining instance of enclosed term;
  • CODE => a computer code;
  • SAMP => sample output from programs, scripts, etc;
  • KBD => text to be entered by a user;
  • VAR => variable or program argument;
  • ABBR => an abbreviation;
  • ACRONYM => an acronym.

Although it depends on the browser, <em> and <strong> elements are usually presented as italic and bold respectively.

Often programming practice for <abbr> and <acronym> is to use title attribute to indicate the full meaning of abbreviated expression.

Although not deprecated the phrase elements are mostly swapped with style sheets approach that offers better effects.


<em></em>, <strong></strong>, <cite></cite>, <dfn></dfn>, <code></code>, <samp></samp>, <kbd></kbd>, <var></var>, <abbr></abbr>, <acronym></acronym>



HTML phrasing elements:


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